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Adolf Hitler

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Dictator of Nazi Germany (1889-1945)

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Adolf Hitler giving a speech.
Hitler as a Baby
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Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 at Braunau-Inn, Austria. His father was a customs official and provided Adolf with secondary school. Back then, Adolf wanted to become an artist, but his father wanted him to become an official like him. So he sent Adolf to the technical school in Linz. Adolf, coming from a small village was looked down upon from the kids at the large secondary school. Hitler started to read aimlessly, dreamt about becoming an artist and evaded his responsibilities. Dropping out because of his bad grades, he was unable to get his graduation certificate. After Hitler's father died of a lung hemorrhage, Hitler left home to achieve his dream in Vienna.

Adolf tried to get admitted to the Academy of Fine Arts, but failed the exam twice. Because his dream was crushed, he withdrew completely and wandered around Vienna. During this time, he encountered writings about racism and anti-Semitic ideas. This helped fuel his German Nationalism, which has been slowly building inside every since he was a boy.

Hitler truly became poor after his parents' money ran out. He tried to support himself by selling watercolor paintings and living the bare minimum. What he learned here is how to evaluate the mentality of the poor people. However, he took them as the real working class instead of the social problem.

Hitler moved to Munich in 1913 to evade the Austrian Military and to finally move to Germany. It was much harder to make a living in Munich than in Vienna, and Hitler was relieved when World War One came about. Hitler was a volunteer in a Bavarian infantry regiment, and operated as a headquarters runner up at the front. Hitler survived a few injuries, like a wound in the leg (1916) and was gassed (1918). He was awarded high decorations for bravery in action. The whole experience of war influenced him and gave him a sense of purpose. This was the time where he first became interested in politics.

Germany's defeat at the end deprived his life of purpose and turned him against the pacifist Weimar republic that he thought was the reason for all of this mess. He had gotten his chance to become a public speaker when the Bavarian Military appointed him as an instructor for the indoctrination of the troops. While being an army political agent, he met the German Workers' Party for the first time. (They later became the Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, or Nazi) Hitler saw this party as a chance to claim political power. He quit his job at the army and devoted every second to becoming the chief propagandist. He emphasized emotionalism and provocation. Hitler quickly became the party chairman just a year later, in 1921.


Hitler's goal was to overthrow the government, but he had to compete with other people. One of these people is Ernst Roehm, a Bavarian staff officer. He wanted to incorporate the SA (Storm Troopers, who were the party's paramilitary units) into his secret army, while Hitler, on the other hand, wanted the primacy of politics. The views of Roehm were prevailing; Hitler tried to regain control by the Beer Hall Putsch of Nov. 8-9, 1923. The goal was to capture the government of Bavaria and then the Nation, but the authorities caught on to it.

This failure disbanded the organizations, sent Hitler, and the other leaders to jail. During the 5 years he spent here, he wrote his book; "Mein Kampf" (My Struggle) The theme in this book is social Darwinism. He said that Marxism, Bolshevism, Liberalism, and Humanism threatened the people of Germany. Then he blamed the Jewish people were directing this from behind the scenes. The country would do best as a dictatorship that would fight a glorious battle against foes, in the process of conquering Lebensraum (Living Space) and this would make Germany invincible.

When Hitler left prison, he tried to rebuild the party, but found great difficulty in doing so. Gregor Strasser challenged him, and he appealed at the workers. To beat the challenge, Hitler targeted the extreme military groups, the people left over from World War I. They eagerly followed Hitler. At a conference in May 1926, Hitler won back the dictatorial chairmanship.

Conditions, mostly social, prevented the party from growing any bigger. The country regained economic and political stability, and extremist solutions were seen as absurd. Also, Hitler was prohibited from speaking, which was his most powerful weapon. In 1929, the German Nationalist party asked for his help in its campaign against the Young Plan's arrangements for German reparations. In September of 1930, the depression struck Germany. The Nazi party grew immensely during this time, and Hitler rose to power quickly. He still used propaganda and terror like he did in the past, but he defended against party opposition.

After he became dictator, he made Eva Braun his mistress, but hasn't married her yet.

In 1932, Hitler's career has reached one of his low points. He just barely lost against the incumbent in the elections in April. Hitler lost prestige with the repetitive "total power." The party was exhausted, and the depression was waning. Around this time, the former Chancellor arranged for Hitler to enter the government. On January 30, 1933, the former chancellor appointed Hitler as the new chancellor.

Within four months, Hitler went and destroyed all of the other political groups. In March of 1933, he had received dictatorial powers from the Reichstag.

In 1934, he faced new conflicts, this time within the party. The SA and the Nazi left opposed his alliance with business leaders, and monarchists were protesting to restore the monarchy. Hitler survived, only by extreme measures. He rallied behind party leaders, the army, and the SS (the Schutzstaffel, or Black shirts) and on June 30th, 1934, he achieved his goal. SA leaders, Monarchists, and many other people were murdered and Hitler became the undisputed master of Germany. Hitler fully became Fuhrer on August 2nd, when Hindenburg died.

The masses admired him and gave him credit for Germany's economic recovery. Hitler protected his position by promoting his rivalries among his subordinates and started to create Concentration Camps, the Gestapo, etc. He then started to persecute the Jewish people, passing the Nuremberg Laws on 1935. These lawas deprived Jews of their citenship and prevented marriage between Jewish and non-Jewish people. More restrictive laws were pased in the next few years and those policies resulted in the emigration of the Jewish and other opposition.

Hitler felt weak in his foreign affairs, so he protected himself by peaceful treaties, like with Poland in 1934. He withdrew from the Leaugh of Nations in October of 1933. Along with this, he started breaking the restrictions from the Treaty of Versatillies. He proclamed open rearmanent and remilitarized the Rhineland. He also tried to sign a treaty with Britian, one for neutrality. He also won over Italy by supporting the Ethiopian War.

Hitler was still determined for Lebenstraum. He annexed Autria and the Sudenland. He won approval from Britian and France after disclaming any further expansion aims. However, he broke this by extending his rule over Czechoslovakia, then threatened Poland. Britian and France jumped in and abandoned their appeasement policy. Hitler then went and signed the Nazi-Soviet pact with Russia on August 23rd. Germany then attacks Poland on September 1st. This is the start of World War II.

A victory over Poland allowed Hitler to mobilize his forcest to the fullest. This also persuaded his generals to increase their efforts in the war. In April of 1940, Germany took control of Nowray and Denmark, and in the next two months conqured Belgium, the Netherlands and France. On June 22nd, Hitler forced France to sign an armistice. This was the best days of his career, with many victories over these European countries. Then he started to build his New Order, which it's only tangible results was Himmler's policy of radical reorganization.

Hitler tried to defeat Britian through a bombing attack on the British Islands and suffered defeat. He met the same fate against the troops in North Africa. On June 22nd, 1941, he launched his attack on the Soviets. (This was considered to be his biggest mistake, since now he has enemies on both sides of himself.) The German troops, with their loose uniorms couldn't survive after the harsh cold and the Russian counter-attack. Around the same time, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th. Hitler declared war on the United States.

In 1942, Hitler was still winning battles, but this is where he started to make more mistakes. He quarreled with his generals' judgements often and seemed to withdraw more and more. With the huge loss at Stalingrad and the recapture of North Africa in 1943, the war was basically over. Hitler would not give up however, trying to rebuild Mussolini's regime in Italy after it collapsed. He also was still quite popular with the masses.

On June 6th, 1944 the Allies invade Normandy, then the Russians broke through the east. Hitler was forced to move to Berlin. His physical and mental health were getting worse through these times. With the Allies closing in by crossing the Rhine River and the Russians comming closer to Berlin, he started to think about suicide. There was an attempt before, but it obviously failed.

Hitler, along with his wife Eva, both committed suicide on April 30, 1945.

A poster about Hitler
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Triumph
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Hitler having a good time with some people

A Nazi Rally in Germany
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Hindenburg choosing Hitler for Reich Chancellor
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You too, should vote for List 1.